Cupcake与Muffin的区别Cupcake与Muffin的区别 There might be some technical
differences that a cook could tell us about, but from the consumer’s
point of view, the difference seems to be that a cupcake really is like
a miniature cake: light


People and places are the two pillars on which most nomfiction is build.

only want to hear some. The detail must be
significant.作者给出两个建议——on of style, the other of substance.     
              First, choose your words with unusual care.

As for substance, be intensely selective.

Find details that are significant. But make sure they do useful work.

Whatever place you write about, go there often enough to isolate the
qualities that make it distinctive.

When you write about a place, try to draw the best out of it.

Finally, however, what brings a place alive is human activity.,Never be afraid to write about a place that you think has had every last
word written about it.

Enter into the intention of each place: to find out what it was trying
to be, not what I might have expected or wanted it to be.




1.Nowhere else in nonfiction do writers use such syrupy words and
groaning platitudes


adj 1)Liquid that is syrupy is sweet or thick like syrup.

2)If you describe something as syrupy, you dislike it because it is too


n 1)Syrup is a sweet liquid made by cooking sugar with water, and
sometimes with fruit juice as well.

2)Syrup is a very sweet thick liquid made from sugar.

3)Syrup is a medicine in the form of a thick, sweet liquid.


v 1)If you groan, you make a long, low sound because you are in pain, or
because you are upset or unhappy about something.

2)If you groan something, you say it in a low, unhappy voice.

3)If you groan about something, you complain about it.

4)If wood or something made of wood groans, it makes a loud sound when
it moves.

5)If you say that something such as a table groans under the weight of
food, you are emphasizing that there is a lot of food on it.

6)If you say that someone or something is groaning under the weight of
something, you think there is too much of that thing.


groan under the weight of sth:used to say that there is too much of sth

groan with sth:to be full of sth

2.Adjectives you would squirm to use in conversation.


v 1)If you squirm, you move your body from side to side, usually because
you are nervous or uncomfortable.

2)If you squirm, you are very embarrassed or ashamed.

3.It should generate a whole constellation of ideas about how men
and women work and play, raise their children, worship their gods, live
and die.

a whole constellation of:

A constellation is a group of stars which form a pattern and have a

A constellation of similar things is a group of them.



There might be some technical differences that a cook could tell us
about, but from the consumer’s point of view, the difference seems to be
that a cupcake really is like a miniature cake: light in weight, sweet,
and often covered with icing and decorations.

Implementation of different interpolations[Bi-Linear and Bi-Cubic]
with OpenGL.


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Table Of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • OpenGL Nearest
  • OpenGL Linear
  • GLSL
  • GLSL

    • Triangular
    • Bell
    • B
    • CatMull-Rom
  • ZoomInterpolation
  • All in One
  • Limitations
  • References
  • Revision

It tends to be not too tall because it’s texture isn’t strong enough to
allow for a very tall structure. It’s always made with white flour as
far as I know.


In OpenGL, we can display a texture to small or large area. Displaying a
texture in the same size requires copying all texels (texture units) to
output pixels. If we want to create a large image from a small texture,
OpenGL has to create many intermediate pixels. This process of creating
intermediate pixels is called as Interpolation.

OpenGL provides two interpolation methods to create a large texture
image. GL_NEARESTand GL_LINEAR. We can
for glTexParameterf()function. GL_NEARESTis a low quality
interpolation and GL_LINEARprovides Bi-Linear interpolation. In
addition to OpenGL interpolation types, here different versions of
Bi-Cubic interpolation are implemented in pixel shaders. Bi-Cubic
interpolation can provide good quality image on creating large image
from small textures. 2

Screenshot of ZoomInterpolation Application. Small area of flower is
zoomed with different interpolations. Different versions of
interpolation have quality difference. GL_NEARESTtype of
interpolation creates a blocky image, and CatMull-Rom or Bi-Cubic Spline
creates a high quality zoomed image. Details of different interpolations
are explained in the below sections.

cupcake通常使用白面粉为主要制作材料,它的内部组织比较松软,所以无法做出顶部高高的造型 3


Interpolation is a “Process used to estimate an unknown value between
two known values by utilizing a common mathematical relation

ZoomInterpolation creates zoomed image with different interpolation
types. OpenGL provides a Bi-Linear interpolation at its maximum. When
zooming a very small texture area to large area, Bi-Linear provides a
less quality.

Bi-Linear interpolation creates an intermediate pixel with the help of
nearest 4 pixels. Bi-Cubic interpolation, a high quality version,
creates an intermediate pixel with the help of nearest 16 pixels.

A muffin is significantly heavier in texture and also in weight; with
its cohesiveness, it can contain fruit, nuts or chocolate chips, which
are not common in cupcakes.

OpenGL GL_NEAREST Interpolation

GL_NEAREST just copies data available in the nearest pixel and it
creates a blocky effect when a very small region is zoomed to a large
screen region. In the nearest interpolation, intermediate pixels are
created with the nearest valid pixel. This kind of interpolated images
are blocky since same data is copied to intermediate pixels.

Below image is created through OpenGL GL_NEARESTinterpolation and its
quality is very bad. Edge of the flower seems to be a “stair case”. We
can remove this stair case through better interpolation methods. 4

Interpolation with GL_NEARESTinterpolation type.

We can use following code to achieve nearest interpolation in OpenGL
fixed function pipeline.

Hide   Copy


与 cupcake 不同,Muffin 的内部组织比较紧,糕体相对厚实,所以它比 cupcake
的过程中,我们通常什么都不放 5

OpenGL GL_LINEAR Interpolation

OpenGL provides a good interpolation method, GL_LINEAR. It
interpolates nearest 4 pixels[2 pixel in X direction and 2 Pixel in Y
direction] and create a smooth image comparing to
the GL_NEARESTmethod. GL_LINEARmethod interpolates both in X and Y
direction. Therefore it is called Bi-Linear interpolation. Details of
Bi-Linear interpolation is explained in GLSL Bi-Linear

The following image is created with GL_LINEARinterpolation and its
edges are smooth when comparing to the image created
through GL_NEARESTinterpolation. Here “stair case” effect is not
visible. But we can see a shade of yellow and green through the edge of
flower, and a small “stair case” is visible at some edges of the flower. 6

Interpolation with GL_LINEARinterpolation type.

The following code can be used to achieve Bi-Linear interpolation in
OpenGL fixed function pipeline.

Hide   Copy


It is never iced and need not be particularly sweet. It can be made with
ingredients as heavy as bran, and can be rather tall and have a large
overhanging rim that doesn’t threaten to fall off. (The cupcake also has
a rim, but it is rather delicate and not too large.)

GLSL Bi-Linear

OpenGL provides only two interpolations methods to create zoomed display
of an image(texture). When zooming a very small region of a texture, we
can see some blocky edges in the output image.

The first step to create a better interpolation method is to create
Bi-Linear interpolation (which is the same as that
of GL_LINEARinterpolation. But we prepare a pixel shader with
Bi-Linear interpolation). We can improve the quality of Bi-Linear and
get a better quality image.

A pixel shader is a program which will execute for each pixels of a
rendering. More details of Pixel Shaders are
available here or here.